# Affine transformation

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In geometry, an **affine transformation** or **affine map** or an **affinity** (from the Latin, *affinis*, "connected with") between two vector spaces (strictly speaking, two affine spaces) consists of a linear transformation followed by a translation:

In the finite-dimensional case each affine transformation is given by a matrix A and a vector *b*, satisfying certain properties described below.

Geometrically, an affine transformation in Euclidean space is one that preserves

- The collinearity relation between points; i.e., three points which lie on a line continue to be collinear after the transformation
- Ratios of distances along a line; i.e., for distinct collinear points , , , the ratio is preserved

In general, an affine transformation is composed of linear transformations (rotation, scaling or shear) and a translation (or "shift"). Several linear transformations can be combined into a single one, so that the general formula given above is still applicable.

## Contents

## Representation of affine transformations

Ordinary vector algebra uses matrix multiplication to represent linear transformations, and vector addition to represent translations. Using an augmented matrix, it is possible to represent both using matrix multiplication. The technique requires that all vectors are augmented with a "1" at the end, and all matrices are augmented with an extra row of zeros at the bottom, an extra column — the translation vector — to the right, and a "1" in the lower right corner. If *A* is a matrix,

is equivalent to the following

This representation exhibits the set of all invertible affine transformations as the semidirect product of *K*^{n} and GL(*n*, *k*). This is a group under the operation of composition of functions, called the affine group.

Ordinary matrix-vector multiplication always maps the origin to the origin, and could therefore never represent a translation, in which the origin must necessarily be mapped to some other point. By appending a "1" to every vector, one essentially considers the space to be mapped as a subset of a space with an additional dimension. In that space, the original space occupies the subset in which the final index is 1. Thus the origin of the original space can be found at (0,0, ... 0, 1). A translation within the original space by means of a linear transformation of the higher-dimensional space is then possible (specifically, a shear transformation). This is an example of homogeneous coordinates.

The advantage of using homogeneous coordinates is that one can combine any number of affine transformations into one by multiplying the matrices. This device is used extensively by graphics software.

## Properties of affine transformations

An affine transformation is invertible if and only if *A* is invertible. In the matrix representation, the inverse is:

The invertible affine transformations form the affine group, which has the general linear group of degree *n* as subgroup and is itself a subgroup of the general linear group of degree *n* + 1.

The similarity transformations form the subgroup where *A* is a scalar times an orthogonal matrix. If and only if the determinant of *A* is 1 or –1 then the transformation preserves area; these also form a subgroup. Combining both conditions we have the isometries, the subgroup of both where *A* is an orthogonal matrix.

Each of these groups has a subgroup of transformations which preserve orientation: those where the determinant of *A* is positive. In the last case this is in 3D the group of rigid body motions (proper rotations and pure translations).

For any matrix *A* the following propositions are equivalent:

*A*–*I*is invertible*A*does*not*have an eigenvalue equal to 1- for all
*b*the transformation has exactly one fixed point - there is a
*b*for which the transformation has exactly one fixed point - affine transformations with matrix
*A*can be written as a linear transformation with some point as origin

If there is a fixed point, we can take that as the origin, and the affine transformation reduces to a linear transformation. This may make it easier to classify and understand the transformation. For example, describing a transformation as a rotation by a certain angle with respect to a certain axis is easier to get an idea of the overall behavior of the transformation than describing it as a combination of a translation and a rotation. However, this depends on application and context. Describing such a transformation for an *object* tends to make more sense in terms of rotation about an axis through the center of that object, combined with a translation, rather than by just a rotation with respect to some distant point. As an example: "move 200 m north and rotate 90° anti-clockwise", rather than the equivalent "with respect to the point 141 m to the northwest, rotate 90° anti-clockwise".

Affine transformations in 2D without fixed point (so where *A* has eigenvalue 1) are:

- pure translations
- scaling in a given direction, with respect to a line in another direction (not necessarily perpendicular), combined with translation that is not purely in the direction of scaling; the scale factor is the other eigenvalue; taking "scaling" in a generalized sense it includes the cases that the scale factor is zero (projection) and negative; the latter includes reflection, and combined with translation it includes glide reflection.
- shear combined with translation that is not purely in the direction of the shear (there is no other eigenvalue than 1; it has algebraic multiplicity 2, but geometric multiplicity 1)

## Affine transformation of the plane

To visualise the general affine transformation of the Euclidean plane, take labelled parallelograms *ABCD* and *A′B′C′D′*. Whatever the choices of points, there is an affine transformation *T* of the plane taking *A* to *A′*, and each vertex similarly. Supposing we exclude the degenerate case where *ABCD* has zero area, there is a unique such affine transformation *T*. Drawing out a whole grid of parallelograms based on *ABCD*, the image *T*(*P*) of any point *P* is determined by noting that *T*(*A*) = *A′*, *T* applied to the line segment *AB* is *A′B′*, *T* applied to the line segment *AC* is *A′C′*, and *T* respects scalar multiples of vectors based at *A*. [If *A*, *E*, *F* are colinear then the ratio length(*AF*)/length(*AE*) is equal to length(*A*′*F*′)/length(*A*′*E*′).] Geometrically *T* transforms the grid based on *ABCD* to that based in *A′B′C′D′*.

Affine transformations don't respect lengths or angles; they multiply area by a constant factor

- area of
*A′ B′ C′ D′*/ area of*ABCD*.

A given *T* may either be *direct* (respect orientation), or *indirect* (reverse orientation), and this may be determined by its effect on *signed* areas (as defined, for example, by the cross product of vectors).

## Example of an affine transformation

The following equation expresses an affine transformation in GF(2) (with "+" representing XOR):

where [M] is the matrix

and {*v*} is the vector

For instance, the affine transformation of the element {a} = *x*^{7} + *x*^{6} + *x*^{3} + *x* = {11001010} in big-endian binary notation = {CA} in big-endian hexadecimal notation, is calculated as follows:

Thus, {*a*′} = *x*^{7} + *x*^{6} + *x*^{5} + *x*^{3} + *x*^{2} + 1 = {11101101} = {ED}.

## See also

- The transformation matrix for an affine transformation
- Affine geometry
- Homothetic transformation
- Similarity transformation
- Linear transformation (the second meaning is affine transformation in 1D)
- 3D projection
- Flat (geometry)

## External links

- Geometric Operations: Affine Transform, R. Fisher, S. Perkins, A. Walker and E. Wolfart.
- Weisstein, Eric W.
*Affine Transformation*. From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. Accessed 15 June 2010. -
*Affine Transform*by Bernard Vuilleumier, Wolfram Demonstrations Project. - Affine Transformation on PlanetMath