ArcGIS 10 vs. ArcGIS 10.1

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The following information outlines equivalency changes in workflows between ArcGIS 10 and ArcGIS 10.1.

ArcGIS for Desktop

Sharing Geoprocessing Tools

Before Version 10.1, sharing a model and its related data required careful structuring so that the model functioned correctly after being removed from the workspace in which it was created. This often required the use of relative paths and/or careful consideration about the environment in which it would be utilized.

At ArcGIS 10.1, these steps can be eliminated by creating a geoprocessing package (.gpk) from a successful result within the Results window. All the data and tools used to create the result are included with the package. You also have the ability to include supporting documents with the package, such as text documents and ZIP files.

Geoprocessing packages can be shared via different methods, such as email, FTP, thumb drives, and ArcGIS Online. When the package is unpacked by another person using ArcGIS for Desktop, they can immediately begin working with the model without any further modification.

Utilizing geoprocessing packages can be helpful for sharing methodologies, project collaboration, consolidation of data, managing scenarios, and training other ArcGIS end-users.

Sharing Locators

Prior to ArcGIS 10.1, to share an address locator you were required to manually distribute the associated locator files (.loc, .loc.xml, .lox), or provide the geodatabase in which the address locator resided.

At ArcGIS 10.1 you can create a locator package (.apk) to conveniently share your locator with others. This process copies and compresses the locator (or a composite locator and its participating locators) into a single file. Because locator packages are compressed, the file size is smaller which makes them easier to transfer.

Locator packages can be unpacked and utilized with ArcGIS for Desktop. In addition to the traditional forms of sending data, locator packages can also be uploaded and shared in ArcGIS Online.

Working with Feature Templates

With the introduction of feature templates in ArcGIS 10.0, it was sometimes difficult to determine when feature templates were created automatically and why feature templates were not displayed in the Create Features window. ArcGIS 10.1 reduces this confusion by creating templates at the layer level and providing more guidance about why templates are hidden.

With ArcGIS 10.1, feature templates are created on a layer-by-layer basis, rather than for a workspace. If you start editing and no feature templates are present for a particular layer, they are created automatically for you. Previously, feature templates were only created the first time you started editing in a map, so you had to create them yourself more often.

When feature templates for editable layers are not being displayed, a message appears at the top of the Create Features window. Click it to see a list of any hidden feature templates and get an explanation why they are not being shown.

Creating Standard-compliant Metadata

All metadata styles provided with ArcGIS other than the Item Description style, are designed to support creating formal metadata that follows a specific metadata standard or profile. At Version 10.0 it was difficult to determine which pages and fields were required for a particular standard while editing the metadata.

At 10.1, a quick glance at the ArcGIS metadata editor's table of contents is all you need to see which pages you must use to provide required information. For each page with a red X, there will be a list at the top describing the problems occurring on that page. For example, a metadata element might be required for your metadata style, but it has no content. Or an integer might be required in an element, but text or a real number was provided instead.

When all information provided on a page is correct for a style's metadata standard, it will have a green check mark both in the editor's table of contents and at the top of the page.

Better LIDAR Support

In previous releases lidar data in LAS format needed to be converted to a point and then, if necessary, to a raster dataset, TIN or Terrain. At ArcGIS 10.1, lidar data is available in an LAS file which can be managed, viewed, updated, and shared, all while remaining in its native format. There are two container objects that allow you to collect multiple LAS files and treat them as a single data unit—the mosaic dataset and the LAS dataset. In a mosaic dataset, you can add LAS files directly. The LAS dataset data model is new in ArcGIS 10.1. It provides vector-based access to LAS files. You can interact with a collection of LAS files either as individual points, or as a TIN-based surface. LAS datasets will allow you to:

  • Do analyses.
  • View lidar points and surfaces in 3D.
  • Edit LAS files.

ArcGIS License Manager

Improved License Usage Visibility

The License Server Administrator now displays transferred and checked-out licenses, in addition to borrowed licenses, in the new “View License Usage” window. A new button, “View License Usage”, has been added in the Availability tab that displays license usage details. This window also has the option to force check-in of a license. This efficient and better user interface for managing licenses has been introduced in 10.1 to overcome the cumbersome process of reading the audit.log file.

ArcGIS for Server

Server Architecture

  • 64-bit Architecture

ArcGIS for Server 10.1 is now a 64-bit application. It requires 64-bit hardware and operating system to run. GIS services can now take full advantage of your hardware and this new architecture will greatly enhance performance and scalability. 64-bit hardware is the current industry standard. Support for 32-bit operating systems has been discontinued.

  • Better installation and deployment experience

ArcGIS Server 10.0 had two setups depending on the development environment, namely ArcGIS Server for .NET and ArcGIS Server for Java. ArcGIS Server for Java had the capability to run on both Windows and Linux platforms with distinctive setups.

At version 10.1, there are two setups, distinguished by operating systems - ArcGIS for Server (Windows) and ArcGIS for Server (Linux). The ArcGIS for Server installation experience has been greatly simplified to eliminate many dependencies and steps that were required in previous releases.

  • At 10.1, there is no requirement to install the .NET framework or a particular Java runtime.
  • Integrating with a separate web server (Microsoft IIS, WebSphere, Apache and so on) is no longer required. Installing ArcGIS for Server provides you with a ready-to-use web services-based GIS server, that includes all web management tools and applications.
  • During the setup, you will be asked to provide just one account to access your GIS resources, data, and run the ArcGIS Server service. This account is called the ArcGIS Server account. At 10.1, there is no post-installation to complete, and there are no SOM, SOC, or ArcGIS web services accounts to configure.
  • There are no dependencies on DCOM, simplifying the configuration of firewalls within your network. All communication with GIS services is through HTTP using SOAP or REST.
  • The Linux setup of ArcGIS for Server is not required to run as root user.

The process of creating a multiple-machine deployment of ArcGIS Server has also been simplified. You run the same installation on each machine and connect the machines using ArcGIS Server Manager.

  • SOC-SOM model has been replaced

In previous versions of ArcGIS Server, the GIS server was composed of two distinct parts: the server object containers (SOCs) and server object manager (SOM). SOCs hosted GIS services, while the SOM managed these services and provided them to clients for use. In ArcGIS for Server 10.1, the SOM-SOC model has been replaced by the ArcGIS Server site. A site is a deployment of one or more machines (GIS servers) that have ArcGIS for Server installed and work together. The 10.1 site architecture is more robust and scalable than the SOM-SOC model. It reduces the chances of failure, and simplifies the provisioning and recovery of new machines.

  • ArcGIS Web Adaptor

The new component "ArcGIS Web Adaptor" provides a scalable, secure and robust way to integrate ArcGIS for Server with your organization's existing web server. It is compatible with IIS, and Java EE servers such as WebSphere and WebLogic.

ArcGIS for Server Administration/Usage

  • Securing Services using Users and Roles

ArcGIS Server 10.0 for the Microsoft .NET Framework provided the option to store ArcGIS Server users and roles in a SQL Server security store. Users and roles were managed using the ASP.NET membership and role provider for SQL Server. At 10.1 this same functionality exists, however the workflow to implement this feature is different. To understand the steps required to implement a SQL Server security store follow the instructions outlined in this link.


Additionally, other security workflows have changed given the new architecture at 10.1. This includes how to secure ArcGIS web services using Integrated Windows Authentication and how to leverage user and role information stored in an LDAP server. These new workflows are documented in these online security tutorials.




  • ArcGIS Server Administration and automation of administrator's tasks through RESTful web service

The new REST-based ArcGIS Server Administrator API allows you to administer your ArcGIS Server site through scripting. To write scripts that administer ArcGIS Server, you need to choose a scripting language that allows you to construct URLs, make HTTP requests, and parse HTTP responses.

Through the Administrator API, you can invoke every administrative task that ArcGIS Server supports. In fact, all administration tools provided with ArcGIS, including ArcGIS for Desktop and ArcGIS Server Manager, make use of this API.

The Administrator API uses a RESTful architecture and can be invoked from any language that can make a web service call, such as Python, Java, JavaScript, PHP, C#, Ruby, Scala, Perl, and others. You do not need any Esri software installed to run a script that uses the Administrator API.

  • Publish "What you See"
  • Major Improvements in Linux Support

The new ArcGIS for Server 10.1 architecture is friendlier on Linux systems. Performance and scalability have been improved greatly with the removal of DCOM. There is no requirement of root user access on a Linux platform to install ArcGIS Server. Publishing on Linux has also been simplified with the new Publishing workflow. In 10.0, there was a requirement of editing the file-based data path after transferring the data and the map document to a Linux Server. With the new 10.1 publishing interface, there is no requirement of editing the source data path of the map before publishing. When publishing file-based data, copying the data to the Linux Server and setting the correct path will be taken care of automatically to save time during the publishing process.

  • Publishing to ArcGIS for Server

The publishing of services to on-premise or cloud-based ArcGIS for Server can be invoked directly from the main menu in ArcGIS for Desktop by choosing File > Share As > Service. Additionally, you can right-click certain GIS resources, such as a geodatabase, in ArcCatalog or the Catalog window in ArcGIS for Desktop and choose Share As Service. The items on the Share As Service dialog help you configure, analyze, and publish your GIS resource as a service to ArcGIS for Server. [ ]

  • New Validation Routines to Ensure Successful Publishing

At ArcGIS 10, you could publish GIS resources such as maps, tools, and locators to ArcGIS Server using ArcGIS Desktop or ArcGIS Server Manager. The method that you chose for publishing was based on a variety of factors, such as your level of permissions, experience, or personal preference. At 10.1, GIS resources that you attempt to publish to ArcGIS for Server are put through a more rigorous analysis process to make sure they are ready to be exposed on the web. You'll need to analyze your GIS resources in ArcGIS for Desktop before you can publish them to the server. [5]

  • Caching Improvements

Using ArcGIS for Server 10.1, you can request that your caching jobs run asynchronously. This means you can submit a large caching job to the server and close any running ArcGIS applications, such as ArcMap, without interrupting tile creation. At any time, you can re-open ArcGIS and request a status report on your job or suspend caching.

  • Streamlined Printing Workflow

Printing a map from a web application presents a number of challenges, which include merging multiple services, maintaining layer visibility settings, adding items to the layout, and drawing graphics on top of the map. Additionally, printing has required the implementation of custom code. To help you with these challenges, ArcGIS for Server includes a geoprocessing service called PrintingTools. When you develop your web applications, you can invoke the PrintingTools service and get a printable image of high cartographic quality in return. For advanced printing or printing on large paper sizes, you can use a Python script to convert the web map into an ArcMap document (MXD), and in turn export the MXD to a variety of formats for printing. [6]

  • How easy will I be able to migrate ArcGIS Server Advanced from version 10 to 10.1. Will my existing Flex web application have to be rebuilt?

Existing Flex Web Applications should continue to work, since the REST Endpoint for connecting to mapservices is the same at 10.1. There is no need to rebuilt them.

  • Is ArcGIS Server supported in Virtualized Environments.

Yes, please see the system requirements for the full details.

ArcGIS for Server Customization

  • Dropped support for DCOM / Local Connections in Favor of RESTful Services

ArcGIS Server versions prior to 10.1 supported both DCOM (ArcGIS Server Local) and HTTP (ArcGIS Server Internet) connections. Version 10.1 no longer supports DCOM connections, and existing applications that use the ArcGIS Server Local connection type will not be able to use services you publish with 10.1. You need to refactor these applications to use HTTP connections before upgrading to 10.1. If you used DCOM connections for the purpose of accessing ArcObjects, you need to remove your ArcObjects code or wrap it in a server object extension. [7]

  • Addin Framework for creating SOEs

Server object extensions (SOEs) allow you to extend the base functionality of ArcGIS for Server by using ArcObjects code to work with GIS data and maps. Deploying SOEs becomes a lot easier at 10.1. In your development environment, such as Eclipse or Visual Studio, you create an .soe file that encapsulates all the necessary parts of the SOE. You can transfer this .soe file between machines and deploy it in one step using ArcGIS Server Manager. The help for SOEs has been expanded and describes the entire process. [8]

ArcGIS Online

ArcGIS Online hosted services is available through organizational subscriptions

ArcGIS Online hosted services allows you to upload a GIS map to an Esri-hosted server and have it immediately available as a web service. There are two types of services you can deploy.

  • Feature services expose the geometry, attributes, and symbol information for vector GIS features. They are appropriate for displaying, querying, and editing your business data on top of web basemaps.
  • Tiled map services expose a set of pre-generated map images (known as a map cache) that can be viewed as basemaps in a web mapping application. When you publish your map to ArcGIS Online hosted services, you can also ask the server to create and store a cache of tiles. You can then bring the tiles into your web map by accessing the service's URL.

Using a combination of tiled map services and feature services in your application allows fast mapping while supporting query and editing operations.

An advantage of using hosted services is that you don't have to install any server software or tune the services. The services run in an Esri-administered cloud environment in which the server automatically scales up to meet demand.


Client libraries for Geodatabase Connection

The installation of ArcGIS 10.1 doesn't include client libraries for the various relational database management systems (DBMS). These have been provided on the Esri Customer Care Portal for user downloads to set up connections to the intended DBMS. For Oracle, one can set up either a full client installation or the Oracle Instant Client to connect to the database. Both client installation types work from ArcGIS 10.1 when connecting to an Oracle database.

Geodatabase Administration

Geodatabase Administration tools have been introduced at ArcGIS 10.1 to provide information relating to versions, connected users and manage locks in an ArcSDE geodatabase. The geodatabase administrator must be granted certain privileges depending on the DBMS being used in order to kill user connection and locks in the geodatabase. At ArcGIS 10.0 and previous versions, these functionalities were available from the ArcSDE command line. Though the ArcSDE command line utility still exists, these functions have been presented in a graphical user interface at ArcGIS 10.1.

  • How can I migrate my 10.0 (32-bit based) Geodatabase to ArcGIS 10.1 in a full 64-bit environment? Are there any tools to help me?

If you have an existing 32-bit ArcSDE installation, you cannot directly upgrade to a 64-bit installation. The simplest way to move your data is to use the tools provided by your database management system (DBMS) to backup and move the entire database from the 32-bit instance to a 64-bit instance of the database. Once this is complete, you can use the tools in ArcMap to upgrade the Geodatabase to version 10.1 Please see the following link in the help that explains this process in detail.

Create/Enable Enterprise Geodatabase

At ArcGIS 10.1, setting up ArcSDE geodatabases is achieved from using either the 'Create Enterprise Geodatabase' or 'Enable Enterprise Geodatabase' geoprocessing tools. The 'Create Enterprise Geodatabase' tool creates a database and a geodatabase administrator in either a PostgreSQL or SQL Server instance and enables geodatabase functionality. In the case of Oracle, the 'Create Enterprise Geodatabase' tool is used to set up a tablespace, geodatabase administrator, and enabling geodatabase functionality. The 'Enable Enterprise Geodatabase' tool enables geodatabase functionality in an existing DB2, Informix, Oracle, PostgreSQL, or SQL Server database and also authorizes the database.

The ArcSDE Post Installation wizard is no longer part of the ArcSDE installation at 10.1. The ArcSDE 10.1 installation only provides the command line functions to either set up Application server services or execute desired functions.

ArcGIS for Smartphones/Tablets, ArcGIS for Windows Mobile & ArcPad

ArcGIS for Smartphones/Tablets - Android, iOS, Windows Phone

SSL Authentication support added to Android App

ArcGIS for Windows Mobile

  • MXDs are now MSDs
  • Create Mobile Cache Tools
  • Attachment Support
  • Editing of Feature Geometry
  • GPS Improvements
  • Improvements to Mobile Project Center

Image Server Extension

Image Service Caching

Image service caching improves the performance of image services in client applications. When you cache an image service, the server pre-generates tiles at different levels, which can be pushed out faster than processing the input from the mosaic dataset or the raster dataset each time a request is made from ArcGIS for Server. An important aspect of an image service cache is that it is not serving imagery that is processed on the fly—it is preprocessing the imagery to create the cached tiles, then serving the cached tiles.

When you cache an image service you end up with a dual-purpose image service that is accessed depending on its purpose. One purpose is to provide the fastest access to the image as a tiled service. The other purpose is to provide access to the data, for queries, downloading, access to individual items, and to use in processing and analysis. [9]


Creating mosaic datasets and image services from LIDAR data.

Lidar data typically comes as a collection of LAS files. At 10.0 and older releases, to serve them you had to convert the LAS files to point feature classes and interpolate the points to rasters, and finally create a mosaic dataset and publish it. ArcGIS 10.1 allows you to add LAS files to a mosaic dataset directly.

Improved support for raster and imagery

• Support for many new raster formats and satellite imagery vendor products have been added. See the list of supported raster data in ArcGIS.

• Lidar data, stored as either LAS files, LAS datasets, or terrains, can be added to a mosaic dataset directly.

• ArcGIS 10.1 introduces a new way to handle specific vendor products, called raster products. A raster product is a raster dataset that uses metadata and header information to pre-create a raster layer from the raw data. When this information is available, a raster product will appear with a special icon ( ) in the catalog. They contain one or more derived raster datasets, such as a multispectral or pan-sharpened product, depending on the metadata and available bands.

• An Interactive Histogram Stretch tool helps you to interactively enhance the raster data in your map by adjusting the minimum and maximum range of values to which the stretch is applied.

• ArcGIS has improved the default display of raster data. If your dataset doesn't have statistics, which are used to enhance the appearance, ArcGIS will generate them from a sampling of pixels in the dataset.

• ArcGIS now applies rendering settings based on the raster properties and available metadata. The Source Type raster property is used to determine default rendering and display resampling—this property is also editable.

• A new stretch method called Esri has been added. This method is useful in providing a good overall stretch with imagery, by preventing pixel values from being stretched to the extreme.

• The Gram-Schmidt pan-sharpening method has been added.

• ArcGIS 10.1 introduces many new tools. Also, in many existing tools new features have been added. For a full list of improvements and new features, please see What's New for Raster and Image Data in ArcGIS 10.1.

New and improved Georeferencing Options

ArcGIS 10.1 offers new and improved georeferencing tools that provide better user experience. The new features added are:

• An Auto Registration tool helps you automatically find links to georeference your image against a referenced image.

• An Auto Complete option helps you identify control points between two raster datasets.

• A new viewer window that allows you to display the data side by side makes image-to-image registration easier.

• The link table is enhanced with new and improved tools to collect and review control points.

• Images can be registered in pixel space.

• An image service layer can be georeferenced.

How will Lidar data be supported in ArcGIS 10.1?