Datum (geodesy)

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A geodetic datum (plural datums, not data) is a reference from which spatial measurements are made. In surveying and geodesy, a datum is a set of reference points on the earth's surface against which position measurements are made, and (often) an associated model of the shape of the earth (reference ellipsoid) to define a geographic coordinate system. Horizontal datums are used for describing a point on the earth's surface, in latitude and longitude or another coordinate system. Vertical datums measure elevations or depths. In engineering and drafting, a datum is a reference point, surface, or axis on an object against which measurements are made.

City of Chicago Datum Benchmark

Reference datums

A reference datum (mathematical model) is a known and constant surface which is used to describe the location of unknown points on the earth. Since reference datums can have different radii and different center points, a specific point on the earth can have substantially different coordinates depending on the datum used to make the measurement. There are hundreds of locally-developed reference datums around the world, usually referenced to some convenient local reference point. Contemporary datums, based on increasingly accurate measurements of the shape of the earth, are intended to cover larger areas. The most common reference datums in use in the North America are NAD27, NAD83, and WGS84.

One must pay extra careful attention to the datum they are referencing.[1].

The North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) is a local referencing system designed to accurately represent North America. It is based on the Clarke spheroid of 1866, whose origin lies at Meade's Ranch, Kansas.[2] This datum gave Meade's Ranch a reference height of zero and projected the rest of North America using this azimuth. NAD 27 is designed to represent North America and little beyond that scope. NAD 27 provided the best mathematical model of North America until the introduction of NAD 83, which largely made NAD 27 obsolete.

The North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) replaced NAD 27 in 1986 as the main horizontal datum for the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Central America. It is based on a network of 250,000 points including 600 satellite Doppler stations.[3] NAD 83 is a great improvement over NAD 27, as it is a more accurate representation of the surface of the earth. NAD 83 is not without error, but it has been found that NAD 27 differs from NAD 83 and true location by several hundred feet.[4]

WGS 84 is the World Geodetic System of 1984. WGS 84 is unique in that it is designed to cover the entire world in its scope. This is a great advantage over NAD 27 and NAD 83, even though it is set up similarly to NAD 83. It is the reference frame used by the U.S. Department of Defense and is defined by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). [5] WGS 84 is used by the Department of Defense for its mapping needs, including its GPS "broadcast" and "precise" orbits. In January 1987, it became the default standard datum for coordinates stored in recreational and commercial GPS units. Since its inception, WGS 84 has been updated twice, most recently in 2008, to increase its operability with GPS systems. WGS 84 is valid through 2010 and is due for an update in the near future.

Users of GPS are cautioned that they must always check the datum of the maps they are using. To correctly enter, display, and to store map-related coordinates, the datum of the map must be entered into the GPS map datum field.

Vertical datums

Datums.jpg

A vertical datum is used for measuring the elevations of points on the earth's surface. They are used as a reference for specifying heights. Vertical datums are either tidal, based on sea levels, or geodetic, based on the same ellipsoid models of the earth used for computing horizontal datums. In the past, datums were measured by survey control points using level bars and optical surface measurement tools. Today, vertical measurements are used via GPS, laser, and satellite [6].

In common usage, elevations are often cited in height above sea level, although what “sea level” actually means is a more complex issue than might at first be thought: the height of the sea surface at any one place and time is a result of numerous effects, including waves, wind and currents, atmospheric pressure, tides, topography, and even differences in the strength of gravity due to the presence of mountains etc.

For the purpose of measuring the height of objects on land, the usual datum used is Mean Sea Level. This is determined by measuring the height of the sea surface over a long period (preferably around 18 years, to account for all the astronomical effects that contribute to tide levels). This allows an average sea level to be determined, with the effects of waves, tides, and short-term changes in wind and currents removed. It will not remove the effects of local gravity strength, and so the height of MSL, relative to a geodetic datum, will vary around the world, and even around one country. For this reason, a country will choose the mean sea level at one specific point to be used as the standard “sea level” for all mapping and surveying in that country. (For example, in Great Britain, the national vertical datum, Ordnance Datum Newlyn, is based on what was mean sea level at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921).

A different principle is used when choosing a datum for nautical charts. For safety reasons, a mariner must be able to know the minimum depth of water that could occur at any point. For this reason, depths and tides on a nautical chart are measured relative to chart datum, which is defined to be a level below which tide rarely falls. Exactly how this is chosen depends on the tidal regime in the area being charted and on the policy of the hydrographic office producing the chart in question; a typical definition is Lowest Astronomical Tide (the lowest tide predictable from based the effects of gravity), or Mean Lower Low Water (the average lowest tide of each day), although MSL is sometimes used in waters with very low tidal ranges.

Conversely, if a ship is to safely pass under a low bridge or overhead power cable, the mariner must know the minimum clearance between the masthead and the obstruction, which will occur at high tide. Consequently, bridge clearances etc are given relative to a datum based on high tide, such as Highest Astronomical Tide or Mean High Water Springs.

While the use of sea-level as a datum is useful for geologically recent topographic features, sea level has not stayed constant throughout geological time, so is less useful when measuring very long-term processes. In some situations sea level does not apply at all — for instance for mapping Mars' surface — forcing the use of a different "zero elevation", such as mean radius.

A geodetic vertical datum takes some specific zero point, and computes elevations based on the geodetic model being used, without further reference to sea levels. Usually, the starting reference point is a tide gauge, so at that point the geodetic and tidal datums might match, but due to sea level variations, the two scales may not match elsewhere. An example of a gravity-based geodetic datum is NAVD88, used in North America, which is referenced to a point in Quebec, Canada. Ellipsoid-based datums such as WGS84, GRS80 or NAD83 use a theoretical surface that may differ significantly from the geoid.

Horizontal datum

The horizontal datum is a series of data points on the surface of the earth. The horizontal datum is primarily used to measure the position of oneself on the Earth's surface (latitude and longitude). Various datums have been used in the past. With satellite technology many are switching to more universal, accepted, and accurate datums. Datum conversion is often needed, but can be done by a computer.

Engineering datums

An engineering datum used in Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is a feature on an object used to create a reference system for measurement.

Datum conversion

A term used to describe the process of converting the coordinates of a point from one datum system to another. Datum conversion may frequently be accompanied by a change of grid projection.

List of Datums

Datum Name[7] Area covered
Adinidan Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Mali, Senegal, Sudan


Afgooye Somalia


Ain El Abd 1970 Bahrain Island, Saudi Arabia


America Samoa 1962 America Samoa Islands
Anna 1 Astro 1965 Cocos Islands
Antigua Island Astro 1943 Antigua, Leeward Islands
ARC 1950 Botswana, Burundi, Lestotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
ARC 1960 Kenya and Tanzania
Ascension Island 1958 Ascension Island
Astro Beacon "E" 1945 Iwo Jima
Astro Dos 71/4 St, Helena Island
Astro Tern Island (Frig) 1961 Tern Island
Austronomical Station 1952 Marcus Island
Australian Geodetic 1966 Australia and Tasmania
Australian Geodetic 1984 Australia and Tasmania
Ayabelle Lighthouse Djibouti
Antigua Island Astro 1943 Antigua, Leeward Islands
Bellevue (IGN) Efate and Erromango Islands
Bermuda 1957 Bermuda Islands
Bissau Ginua-Bissau
Bogota Observatory Columbia
Bukit Rimpah Bangka and Belitung Islands (Indonesia)
Camp Area Astro Camp Mcmurdo Area, Antarctica
Campo Inchauspe 1969 Argentina
Canton Astro 1966 Phoenix Islands
Cape South Africa
Cape Canaveral Mean Solution
Carthage Tunisia
Chatham Island Astro 1971 Chatham Island (New Zealand)
Chua Astro Paraguay
Co-ordinate System 1937 of Estonia Estonia
Corrego Alegre Brazil
Dabola Guinea
Deception Island Deception Island, Antarctica
Djakarta (Batavia) Sumatra (Indonesia)
DOS 1968 Gizo Island (New Georgia Islands)
Easter Island 1967 Easter Island
European 1950 Western Europe, Cyprus, Egypt, England, Scotland, Channel & Shetland Islands, Greece, Iran, Sardania (Italy), Sicily (Italy), Norway & Finland, Malta, Tunisia, Portugal, Spain, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria
European 1979 Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Fort Thomas 1955 Nevis, St. Kitts, Leeward Islands
Gan 1970 Republic of Maldives
Geodetic Datum 1949 New Zealand
Graciosa Base SW 1948 Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceria Islands
Guam 1963 Guam
Gunung Segara Kalimantan (Indonesia)
Gux 1 Astro Gusdalcanal Island
Herat North Afghanistan
Hermannskogel Yugoslavia (Prior to 1990) Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina Serbia
Hjorsey 1955 Iceland
Hong Kong 1963 Hong Kong
Hu-Tzu-Shan Taiwan
Indian Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan
Indian 1954 Thailand
Indian 1960 Vietnam and Con Son Island (Vietnam)
Indian 1975 Thailand
Indonesian 1974 Idonesia
Ireland 1965 Ireland
ISTS 061 Astro 1968 South Georgia Island
ISTS 073 Astro 1969 Diego Garcia
Johnston Island 1961 Johnston Island
Kandawala Sri Lanka
Kerguelen Island 1949 Kerguelen Island
Kertau 1948 West Malaysia and Singapore
Kusaie Astro 1951 Caroline Islands, Fed. States of Micronesia
L.C. 5 Astro 1961 Cayman Brac Island
Leigon Liberia
Luzon Philippines
Mahe 1971 Mahe Island
Massawa Eritrea
Merchich Morocco
Midway Astro 1961 Midway Islands
Minna Cameroon and Nigeria
Montserrat Island Astro 1958 Montserrat, Leeward Islands
M'Poraloko Gabon
Nahrwan Masirah Island (Oman), United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia
Naparima, BWI Trinidad and Tobago
North American 1927 (NAD-27) Western United States, Eastern United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Bahamas, San Salvador Island, Canada Mean Solution, Alberta, British Columbia, Eastern Canada (Newfoundland, New Bruswich, Nova Scotia, Quebec), Manitoba, Ontario, Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Canal Zone, Caribbean (Antigua Island, Barbados, Caicos Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grand Cayman, Jamaica, Turks Islands), Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), Cuba, Greenland, Mexico)
North American 1983 (NAD-83) Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Canada, Mexico, Central America, CONUS, Hawaii
North Sahara 1959 Algeria
Observatorio Meteorlogico 1939 Corvo and Flores Islands (Azores)
Old Egyptian 1907 Egypt
Old Hawaiian Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Oahu
Oman Oman
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936 England, Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, Shetland Islands
Pico De Las Nieves Canary Islands
Pitcairn Astro 1967 Pitcairn Island
Point 58 Burkina Faso and Niger
Point Noire 1948 Congo
Porto Santo 1936 Porto Santo and Madeira Islands
Provisional South American 1956 Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico and Virginia Islands
Qatar National Qatar
Qornoq South Greenland
Reunion Mascarene Islands
Rome 1940 Sardinia
S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Latvia, Kazakhstan, Albania, Romania, Russia
Santo (DOS) 1965 Espirito Santo Island
Sao Braz Sao Miguel, Santa Maria Islands (Azores)
Sapper Hill 1943 East Falkland Island
Schwarzeck Nambia
Hjorsey 1955 Iceland
Selvagem Grande 1938 Salvage Islands
Sierra Leone 1960 Sierra Leone
S-JTSK Czechoslovakia
South American 1969 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Baltra, Galapagos Islands, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela
South Asia Singapore
Tananarive observatory 1925 Madagascar
Timbalai 1948 Brunei and East Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah)
Tokyo Japan, Okinawa, South Korea
Tristan Astro 1968 Tristan da Cunha
Viti Levu 1916 Viti Levu Islands (Fiji Islands)
Voirol 1960 Algeria
Voirol 1874 Algeria
Wake Eniwetok 1960 Marshall Islands
Wake Island Astro 1952 Wake Atoll
WGS-72 International
WGS-84 International
Yacare Uruguay
Zanderij Suriname

See also

References

  1. Geographic System Positioning Help
  2. (08 Jan. 2008). Spatial Referencing - History. Canadian Spatial Reference System. Retrieved 25 Sep. 2011.
  3. Veilleux, V. (29 June 2011). What is a geodetic datum? National Geodetic Survey: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 25 Sep. 2011.
  4. Strange, B. (Dec. 2001). The Problem with NAD 27. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved from Pima County Geographic Information Systems Web site, 25 Sep. 2011.
  5. Veilleux, V. (29 June 2011). What is WGS 84? Does it change?, National Geodetic Survey: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 25 Sep. 2011.
  6. Bolstad, Paul. "Chapter 3". GIS Fundamentals: A First Text on Geographical Information Systems. 92. ,
  7. http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/coordsys/onlinedatum/DatumTable.html#ADINDAN. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, retrieved October 14, 2012

External links