Physiographic regions of the world

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The physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions based upon Nevin Fenneman's classic three-tiered approach of divisions, provinces and sections,[1] in 1916,[2] which although they date from the mid 1910s, are still considered basically valid, and were the basis for similar classifications of other continents later.[3] These works have been termed "Indespensible to any student of physiography are the maps and physiographic diagrams by Fenneman, Lobeck, Raisz, and Hammond".[4]

During the early 1900s, the study of regional-scale geomorphology was termed "physiography". Unfortunately, physiography later was considered to be a contraction of "physical" and "geography", and therefore synonymous with physical geography, and the concept became embroiled in controversy surrounding the appropriate concerns of that discipline. Some geomorphologists held to a geological basis for physiography and emphasized a concept of physiographic regions while a conflicting trend among geographers was to equate physiography with "pure morphology," separated from its geological heritage.[5] In current usage, physiography still lends itself to confusion as to which meaning is meant, the more specialized "geomorphological" definition or the more encompassing "physical geography" definition. For the remainder of this article, emphasis will remain on the more "geomorphological" usage, which is based upon geological landforms, not on climate, vegetation, or other non-geological criteria.

For the purposes of physiographic mapping, landforms are classified according to both their geologic structures and histories. Distinctions based on geologic age also correspond to physiographic distinctions where the forms are so recent as to be in their first erosion cycle, as is generally the case with sheets of glacial drift. Generally, forms which result from similar histories are characterized by certain similar features, and differences in history result in corresponding differences of form, usually resulting in distinctive features which are obvious to the casual observer, but this is not always the case. A maturely dissected plateau may grade without a break from rugged mountains on the one hand to mildly rolling farm lands on the other. So also, forms which are not classified together may be superficially similar; for example, a young coastal plain and a peneplain. In a large number of cases, the boundary lines are also geologic lines, due to differences in the nature or structure of the underlying rocks.[2]

[edit] History

The history of "physiography" itself is at best a complicated effort. Much of the complications arise from how the term has evolved over time, both as its own 'science' and as a synonym for other branches of science. In 1848, Mary Somerville published her book Physical Geography which gave detailed descriptions of the topography of each continent, along with the distribution of plant, animals and humans. This work gave impetus to further works along the field. In Germany, Oscar Peschel in 1870, proposed that geographers should study the morphology of the Earth's surface, having an interest in the study of landforms for the development of human beings. As the chair of geography (and a geologist by training) in Bonn, Germany, Ferdinand von Richtofen made the study of landforms the main research field for himself and his students. Elsewhere, Thomas Henry Huxley's Physiography was published in 1877 in Britain. Shortly after, the field of "physical geography" itself was renamed as "physiography". Afterwards, physiography became a very popular school subject in Britain, accounting for roughly 10% of all examination papers in both English and Welsh schools, and physiography was now regarded as an integral, if not the most important aspect of geography.[6]

In conjunction with these 'advances' in physiography, physically and visually mapping these descriptive areas was underway as well. The early photographers and balloonists, Nadar and Triboulet, experimented with aerial photography and the view it provided of the landscape. In 1899, Albert Heim published his photographs and observations made during a balloon flight over the Alps; he is probably the first person to use aerial photography in geomorphological or physiographical research. The block diagrams of Feeneman, Raisz, Lobeck and many others were based in part upon both aerial photography and topographic maps, giving an oblique "birds-eye" view.[7]

By 1901, there were clear differences in the definition of the term physiography. "In England, physiography is regarded as the introduction to physical science in general. It is made to include the elements of physics, chemistry, astronomy, physical geography, and geology, and sometimes even certain phases of botany and zoology. In America, the term has a somewhat different meaning. It is sometimes used as a synonym for physical geography, and is sometimes defined as the science which describes and explains the physical features of the earth's surface".[8]

By 1911, the definition of physiography in Encyclopædia Britannica had evolved to be "In popular usage the words 'physical geography' have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject. The popular Physical meaning is better conveyed by the word physiography, a geography term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the Middle Ages by Professor Huxley. Although the term has since been limited by some writers to one particular part of the subject, it seems best to maintain the original and literal meaning. In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes. It thus draws upon physics for the explanation of the phenomena with the space-relations of which it is specially concerned. Physical geography naturally falls into three divisions, dealing respectively with the surface of the lithosphere - geomorphology; the hydrosphere - oceanography; and the atmosphere - climatology. All these rest upon the facts of mathematical geography, and the three are so closely inter-related that they cannot be rigidly separated in any discussion".

The 1919 edition of The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge further adjusted the definition to be "Physiography (geomorphology), now generally recognized as a science distinct from geology, deals with the origins and development of land forms, traces out the topographic expression of structure, and embodies a logical history of oceanic basins, and continental elevations; of mountains, plateaus and plains; of hills and valleys. Physical geography is used loosely as a synonym, but the term is more properly applied to the borderland between geography and physiography; dealing, as it does, largely with the human element as influenced by its physiographic surroundings".

Even in the 21st century, some confusion remains as to exactly what "physiography" is. One source states "Geomorphology includes quaternary geology, physiography and most of physical geography"[9], treating physiography as a separate field, but subservient to geomorphology. Another source states "Geomorphology (or physiography) refers to the study of the surface features of the earth. It involves looking at the distribution of land, water, soil and rock material that forms the land surface. Land is closely linked to the geomorphology of a particular landscape"[10], regarding physiography as synonymous with geomorphology. Yet another source states "Physiography may be viewed from two distinct angles, the one dynamic, the other passive". The same source continues by stating "In a large fashion geodynamics is intimately associated with certain branches of geology, as sedimentation, while geomorphology connects physiography with geography. The dynamic interlude representing the active phase of physiography weaves the basic threads of geologic history."[11] The U.S. Geological Survey defines physiography as a study of "Features and attributes of earth's land surface"[12], while geomorphology is defined separately as "Branch of geology dealing with surface land features and the processes that create and change them".[13]

Partly due to this confusion over what "physiography" actually means, some scientists have refrained from using the term physiography (and instead use the similar term geomorphology) because the definitions vary from the American Geological Institute's "the study and classification of the surface features of Earth on the basis of similarities in geologic structure and the history of geologic changes" to descriptions that also include vegation and/or land use.[14]

[edit] Compendium table of the worlds physiographic regions

The landforms of the Earth are generally divided into physiographic divisions, consisting of physiographic provinces, which in turn consist of physiographic sections,[15][16][17] though some others use different terminology, such as realms, regions and sub-regions.[18] Some areas have further categorized their respective areas into more detailed sub-sections.[19][20]

landmass division province section
Africa African Alpine System
Africa African Alpine SystemAtlas Mountains
Africa African Alpine SystemAtlas MountainsMediterranean Atlas
Africa African Alpine SystemAtlas MountainsSouthern Atlas
Africa African Alpine SystemAtlas MountainsHigh Interior Plateaus
Africa African Alpine SystemAtlas MountainsCanary Islands
Africa African massive
Africa African massiveSahara
Africa African massiveSaharaCentral Sahara Domes
Africa African massiveSaharaEncircling Plateaus And Lowlands
Africa African massiveSaharaCentral Sahara Ergs
Africa African massiveSaharaWestern Sahara
Africa African massiveSaharaEastern Sahara
Africa African massiveSudan
Africa African massiveSudanNiger Basin
Africa African massiveSudanChad Basin
Africa African massiveSudanMiddle Nile Basin
Africa African massiveMid-African
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanWest Guinea Highlands
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanGuinea Coast
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanCameroon Mountains
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanUbangi-Shari Upland
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanSouth Guinea Highlands
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanCoastal Lowlands
Africa African massiveMid-AfricanCongo Basin
Africa South African Platform
Africa South African PlatformKalahari Region
Africa South African PlatformKalahari RegionEncircling Uplands
Africa South African PlatformLunda Swell
Africa South African PlatformMatabele Upland
Africa South African PlatformVeldt
Africa South African PlatformHigh Karroo
Africa South African PlatformDamara-Nama Upland
Africa South African PlatformNamib Desert
Africa South African PlatformCape Mountains
Africa South African PlatformNatal Terrace Belt
Africa South African PlatformMozambique Plain
Africa South African PlatformMadagascar
Africa East African HighlandsRift Valley
Africa East African HighlandsRift ValleyCoastal Belt
Africa East African HighlandsRift ValleyHigh Interior Plateau
Africa East African HighlandsRift ValleyWestern Rift Belt
Africa East African HighlandsRift ValleyEastern Rift Belt
Africa East African HighlandsAbyssinian
Africa East African HighlandsAbyssinianSomali Plateau
Africa East African HighlandsAbyssinianEthiopian Massive
Africa East African HighlandsAbyssinianAbyssinian Graben
Africa East African HighlandsAbyssinianEtbai Range
Americas Appalachian
Americas AppalachianAtlantic Coast Uplands
Americas AppalachianEastern Newfoundland Atlantic
Americas AppalachianMaritime Acadian Highlands
Americas AppalachianMaritime Plain
Americas AppalachianNotre Dame And Megantic Mountains
Americas AppalachianWestern Newfoundland Mountains
Americas AppalachianWestern Newfoundland MountainsNewfoundland Highlands
Americas AppalachianWestern Newfoundland MountainsNewfoundland Coastal Lowland
Americas AppalachianPiedmont province
Americas AppalachianPiedmont provincePiedmont Upland
Americas AppalachianPiedmont provincePiedmont Lowlands
Americas AppalachianBlue Ridge province
Americas AppalachianBlue Ridge provinceNorthern section
Americas AppalachianBlue Ridge provinceSouthern section
Americas AppalachianValley And Ridge province
Americas AppalachianValley And Ridge provinceTennessee section
Americas AppalachianValley And Ridge provinceMiddle section
Americas AppalachianValley And Ridge provinceHudson Valley
Americas AppalachianSt. Lawrence Valley
Americas AppalachianSt. Lawrence ValleyChamplain section
Americas AppalachianSt. Lawrence ValleyNorthern section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus province
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceMohawk section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceCatskill section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceSouthern New York section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceAllegheny Mountain section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceKanawha section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceCumberland Plateau section
Americas AppalachianAppalachian Plateaus provinceCumberland Mountain section
Americas AppalachianNew England province
Americas AppalachianNew England provinceSeaboard Lowland section
Americas AppalachianNew England provinceNew England Upland section
Americas AppalachianNew England provinceWhite Mountain section
Americas AppalachianNew England provinceGreen Mountain section
Americas AppalachianNew England provinceTaconic section
Americas Arctic Lowlands
Americas Arctic LowlandsEastern Arctic Lowlands
Americas Arctic LowlandsWestern Arctic Lowlands
Americas Atlantic Plain
Americas Atlantic PlainContinental Shelf
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal Plain
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainEmbayed section
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainSea Island section
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainFloridian section
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainEast Gulf Coastal Plain
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainMississippi Alluvial Plain
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainWest Gulf Coastal Plain
Americas Atlantic PlainCoastal PlainGulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula
Americas Canadian Shield
Americas Canadian ShieldLaurentian Upland
Americas Canadian ShieldAdirondack province
Americas Canadian ShieldLaurentian UplandSuperior Upland
Americas Canadian ShieldKazan
Americas Canadian ShieldDavis
Americas Canadian ShieldHudson
Americas Canadian ShieldHudsonHudson Bay Lowlands
Americas Canadian ShieldJames
Americas Innuitian Region
Americas Innuitian RegionEastern High Arctic Glacier
Americas Innuitian RegionWestern High Arctic
Americas Interior Highlands
Americas Interior HighlandsOzark Plateaus
Americas Interior HighlandsOzark PlateausSpringfield-Salem Plateaus
Americas Interior HighlandsOzark PlateausBoston Mountains
Americas Interior HighlandsOuachita province
Americas Interior HighlandsOuachita provinceArkansas Valley
Americas Interior HighlandsOuachita provinceOuachita Mountains
Americas Interior Plains
Americas Interior PlainsInterior Low Plateaus
Americas Interior PlainsInterior Low PlateausHighland Rim section
Americas Interior PlainsInterior Low PlateausLexington Plain
Americas Interior PlainsInterior Low PlateausNashville Basin
Americas Interior PlainsGreat Plains
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsMissouri Plateau, Glaciated
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsMissouri Plateau, Unglaciated
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsBlack Hills
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsHigh Plains
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsPlains Border
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsArctic Coastal Plain
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsColorado Piedmont
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsRaton section
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsPecos Valley
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsEdwards Plateau
Americas Interior PlainsGreat PlainsCentral Texas section
Americas Interior PlainsCentral Lowland
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandDissected Till Plains
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandEastern Lake section
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandOsage Plains
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandTill Plains
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandWestern Lake section
Americas Interior PlainsCentral LowlandWisconsin Driftless section
Americas Interior PlainsMackenzie Delta
Americas Interior PlainsMackenzie DeltaMackenzie River
Americas Interior PlainsMackenzie DeltaYukon Coastal Plain
Americas Interior PlainsManitoba Lowlands
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal Plains
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal PlainsGreat Slave Plain
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal PlainsGreat Bear Plain
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal PlainsAnderson Plain
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal PlainsPeel Plain And Plateau
Americas Interior PlainsNorthern Boreal PlainsColville Hills
Americas Interior PlainsPrairie Grasslands
Americas Interior PlainsPrairie GrasslandsAlberta Plain
Americas Interior PlainsPrairie GrasslandsSaskatchewan Hills
Americas Interior PlainsSouthern Boreal Plains And Plateaux
Americas Interior PlainsSouthern Boreal Plains And PlateauxAlberta Plateau
Americas Interior PlainsSouthern Boreal Plains And PlateauxSaskatchewan Plain
Americas Intermontane Plateaus
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia Plateau
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia PlateauWalla Walla Plateau
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia PlateauBlue Mountain section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia PlateauPayette section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia PlateauSnake River Plain
Americas Intermontane PlateausColumbia PlateauHarney section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado Plateaus
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausHigh Plateaus Of Utah
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausUinta Basin
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausCanyon Lands
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausNavajo section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausGrand Canyon section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausDatil-Mogollon Section
Americas Intermontane PlateausColorado PlateausAcoma-Zuni Section
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range Province
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceGreat Basin
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceSonoran Desert
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceSalton Trough
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceMexican Highland
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceSacramento section
Americas Intermontane PlateausBasin And Range ProvinceMexican Altiplano
Americas Intermontane PlateausNorthern Plateaus
Americas Intermontane PlateausNorthern PlateausInterior Plateau
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana Uplands
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsYukon Plateau
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsCassiar Mountains
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsSkeena Mountains
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsLiard Plain
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsHyland Plateau
Americas Intermontane PlateausYukon-Tanana UplandsPelly Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemCascade-Sierra Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemCascade-Sierra MountainsNorthern Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemCascade-Sierra MountainsMiddle Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemCascade-Sierra MountainsSouthern Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemCascade-Sierra MountainsSierra Nevada
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border province
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provincePuget Trough
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceOlympic Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceOregon Coast Range
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceKlamath Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceCalifornia Trough
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceCalifornia Coast Ranges
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceLos Angeles Ranges (Transverse Ranges)
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceAleutian Islands
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemPacific Border provinceBoundary Ranges
Americas Pacific Mountain SystemLower California (Peninsular Ranges)
Americas Rocky Mountain System
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemWyoming Basin
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemColumbia Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemColumbia MountainsColumbia Highlands
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemColumbia MountainsInterior Plateau
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemColumbia MountainsSouthern Rocky Mountain Trench
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemArctic Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemArctic MountainsBrooks Range
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemArctic MountainsArctic Foothills
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemNorthern Rocky Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemMiddle Rocky Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain SystemSouthern Rocky Mountains
Americas Sierra Madre System
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre Occidental
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OccidentalLava (Rhyolite) Plateau
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OccidentalSonoran High Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OccidentalEastern Upland With Basins
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre Oriental
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OrientalNorthern section
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OrientalThe High Sierra
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OrientalCross Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre OrientalLower Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del Sur
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del SurBalsas-Mexcala Basin
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del SurOaxaca Upland
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del SurNortheast Folded Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del SurSouthern Slope
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSierra Madre del SurNorthern section
Americas Sierra Madre SystemTrans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
Americas Sierra Madre SystemSouthern Mexican Highlands
Americas Baja California
Americas Baja CaliforniaSouthern Horst
Americas Baja CaliforniaLlano De La Magdalena
Americas Baja CaliforniaColorado Delta
Americas The Buried Ranges
Americas The Buried RangesSonoran Desert
Americas The Buried RangesDeltas
Americas The Buried RangesSinaloa Coast
Americas The Buried RangesPiedmont Ranges
Americas Central Meseta
Americas Gulf Coastal Lowland
Americas Neovolcanic Plateau
Americas Chiapas-Guatemala Highlands
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan PeninsulaPitted Lowlands
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan PeninsulaYucatan Platform
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan PeninsulaEast Coast
Americas Andean Mountain System
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern Andes
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern AndesCordillera Occidental
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern AndesCordillera Central
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern AndesCordillera Oriental
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern AndesMagdalena Basin
Americas Andean Mountain SystemNorthern AndesMaracaibo Basin
Americas Andean Mountain SystemCentral Andes
Americas Andean Mountain SystemCentral AndesCordillera Occidental
Americas Andean Mountain SystemCentral AndesAtacama Desert
Americas Andean Mountain SystemCentral AndesAltiplano
Americas Andean Mountain SystemCentral AndesCordillera Oriental
Americas Andean Mountain SystemSouthern Andes
Americas Andean Mountain SystemSouthern AndesFuegian Andes
Americas Andean Mountain SystemSouthern AndesPatagonian Andes
Americas Andean Mountain SystemAndean Piedmont
Americas Brazilian Highlands
Americas Brazilian HighlandsBrazilian Oldland
Americas Brazilian HighlandsGoyaz Massif
Americas Brazilian HighlandsMato Grosso Plateau
Americas Brazilian HighlandsGuiana Shield
Americas Brazilian HighlandsChiquitos Plateau
Americas Brazilian HighlandsParana Plateau
Americas Brazilian HighlandsCoastal Plain
Americas Guiana Highlands
Americas Guiana HighlandsGuiana Coastal Plain
Americas Amazon Plain
Americas Amazon PlainLlanos De Mojos
Americas Orinoco Basin
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain
Americas Parana-Paraguay PlainGran Chaco
Americas Parana-Paraguay PlainPantanal
Americas Parana-Paraguay PlainArgentine Mesopotamia
Americas Parana-Paraguay PlainPampas
Americas Parana-Paraguay PlainMonte
Americas Patagonian Plateau
Australia West Australian Shield
Australia West Australian ShieldYilgarn Block
Australia West Australian ShieldYilgarn BlockStirling-Mount Barren Block
Australia West Australian ShieldYilgarn BlockDarling Hills
Australia West Australian ShieldYilgarn BlockRecherche Shelf
Australia West Australian ShieldDonnybrook Sunkland
Australia West Australian ShieldDonnybrook SunklandNaturaliste-Leeuwin Horst
Australia West Australian ShieldSwan Coastal Belt
Australia West Australian ShieldSwan Coastal BeltDandaragan Plateau
Australia West Australian ShieldSwan Coastal BeltGreenough Block
Australia West Australian ShieldSwan Coastal BeltRottnest-Abrolhos Shelf
Australia West Australian ShieldCarnarvon Basin
Australia West Australian ShieldCarnarvon BasinShark Bay-Byro Plains
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine Platform
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine PlatformPilbara Block
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine PlatformFortescue Rift
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine PlatformHamersley Plateau
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine PlatformOnslow Coastal Plain
Australia West Australian ShieldNullagine PlatformDampier Rise
Australia West Australian ShieldCanning Basin
Australia West Australian ShieldCanning BasinPindan Country
Australia West Australian ShieldCanning BasinFitzroy Valley
Australia West Australian ShieldCanning BasinRowley Depression
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly Block
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly BlockKing Leopold Range
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly BlockDurack Range
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly BlockLeveque Rise
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly BlockBrowse Depression
Australia West Australian ShieldKimberly BlockLondonderry Rise
Australia West Australian ShieldAntrim Region
Australia West Australian ShieldAntrim RegionOrd Basin
Australia West Australian ShieldAntrim RegionCambridge Gulf Lowlands
Australia West Australian ShieldAntrim RegionBonaparte Depression
Australia West Australian ShieldArnhem Block
Australia West Australian ShieldArnhem BlockPine Creek Belt
Australia West Australian ShieldArnhem BlockVan Dieman Rise
Australia West Australian ShieldArnhem BlockArafura Shelf
Australia West Australian ShieldArnhem BlockWessel Rise
Australia West Australian ShieldArunta-Sturt Block
Australia West Australian ShieldBarkly Tableland
Australia West Australian ShieldBarkly TablelandMueller Plateau
Australia West Australian ShieldBarkly TablelandSandover-Pituri Platform
Australia West Australian ShieldMount Isa-Cloncurry Fold Belt
Australia West Australian ShieldMacDonnell Fold Belt
Australia West Australian ShieldAmadeus Sunkland
Australia West Australian ShieldMusgrave Block
Australia West Australian ShieldNurrari Plain
Australia West Australian ShieldEucla Basin
Australia West Australian ShieldEucla BasinEyre Coastal Plain
Australia West Australian ShieldEucla BasinEucla Shelf
Australia West Australian ShieldGawler Block
Australia West Australian ShieldGawler BlockStuart Range Basin
Australia West Australian ShieldGawler BlockPimba Platform
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter Belt
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter BeltTorrens Graben
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter BeltSpencer Graben
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter BeltVincent Graben
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter BeltYorke Horst
Australia West Australian ShieldSouth Australian Shatter BeltFrome Graben
Australia West Australian ShieldWillyama Block
Australia East Australian Basins
Australia East Australian BasinsCarpentaria Basin
Australia East Australian BasinsCarpentaria BasinGulf of Carpentaria
Australia East Australian BasinsCarpentaria BasinKynuna Platform
Australia East Australian BasinsGreat Artesian Basin
Australia East Australian BasinsGreat Artesian BasinWilcannia Threshold
Australia East Australian BasinsMurray Basin
Australia East Australian BasinsMurray BasinNaracoorte Platform
Australia East Australian BasinsMurray BasinEncounter Shelf
Australia East Australian Cordillera
Australia East Australian CordilleraCape York Platform
Australia East Australian CordilleraCape York PlatformCoen Belt
Australia East Australian CordilleraCape York PlatformTorres Strait Islands
Australia East Australian CordilleraEtheridge Dome
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland Highlands
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland HighlandsChillagoe Belt
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland HighlandsNormanby Platform
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland HighlandsAtherton Tableland
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland HighlandsMount Emu Lava Plains
Australia East Australian CordilleraNorth Queensland HighlandsCairns Littoral
Australia East Australian CordilleraGreat Barrier Reef
Australia East Australian CordilleraGreat Barrier ReefMurray Islands
Australia East Australian CordilleraCentral Queensland Highlands
Australia East Australian CordilleraCentral Queensland HighlandsBowen-Springsure Belt
Australia East Australian CordilleraCentral Queensland HighlandsBuckland Basalt Tablelands
Australia East Australian CordilleraRockhampton-Brisbane Belt
Australia East Australian CordilleraRockhampton-Brisbane BeltMaryborough Basin
Australia East Australian CordilleraRockhampton-Brisbane BeltToowoomba Basalt Plateaus
Australia East Australian CordilleraNew England Block
Australia East Australian CordilleraNew England BlockClarence Basin
Australia East Australian CordilleraHunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland
Australia East Australian CordilleraHunter-Hawkesbury SunklandSydney Basin
Australia East Australian CordilleraHunter-Hawkesbury SunklandWarrumbungle-Liverpool Basalt Ranges
Australia East Australian CordilleraHunter-Hawkesbury SunklandBlue Mountains
Australia East Australian CordilleraCentral Highlands Of New South Wales
Australia East Australian CordilleraCentral Highlands Of New South WalesWestern Slopes
Australia East Australian CordilleraCobar Platform
Australia East Australian CordilleraKosciusko Massif
Australia East Australian CordilleraKosciusko MassifGourock-Monaro Belt
Australia East Australian CordilleraEastern Victorian Highlands
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Victorian Highlands
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Victorian HighlandsGrampians
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Basalt Plains Of Victoria
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Basalt Plains Of VictoriaOtway Hills
Australia East Australian CordilleraGippsland
Australia East Australian CordilleraGippslandSouth Gippsland Hills
Australia East Australian CordilleraGippslandPort Phillip Sunkland
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Tasmanian Highlands
Australia East Australian CordilleraWestern Tasmanian HighlandsCentral Tasmanian Plateau
Australia East Australian CordilleraBass-Midland Graben
Australia East Australian CordilleraBass-Midland GrabenBass Strait
Australia East Australian CordilleraBen Lomond Block
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian ShieldNorway Upland
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian ShieldSwedish Lowland
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian ShieldLake Region
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian ShieldKarelian Trough
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian ShieldEnglish Lowlands
Eurasia Central European Uplands
Eurasia Central European UplandsHibernian Uplands
Eurasia Central European UplandsCornish-Welsh Uplands
Eurasia Central European UplandsPennine Chain
Eurasia Central European UplandsScottish Highlands
Eurasia Central European UplandsArmorican Massive
Eurasia Central European UplandsSouth Central Plateau (Massif Central)
Eurasia Central European UplandsCentral Plateau (Meseta Central)
Eurasia Central European UplandsJura Range
Eurasia Central European UplandsVosges And Black Forest Mountains
Eurasia Central European UplandsSwiss-Bavarian Plateau
Eurasia Central European UplandsBohemian Massive
Eurasia Central European UplandsCantabrian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine System
Eurasia Alpine SystemPyrenees
Eurasia Alpine SystemAlps
Eurasia Alpine SystemAlpsSouthern Alps
Eurasia Alpine SystemAlpsWestern Alps
Eurasia Alpine SystemAlpsEastern Alps
Eurasia Alpine SystemCantabrian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine SystemApennines
Eurasia Alpine SystemEbro Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine SystemVolcanic Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine SystemSpanish Meseta
Eurasia Alpine SystemDinaric-Grecian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine SystemDinaric-Grecian MountainsPindus
Eurasia Alpine SystemAndalusian Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine SystemCorsardinian Highlands
Eurasia Alpine SystemBaetic Cordillera
Eurasia Alpine SystemHungarian Basin
Eurasia Alpine SystemTransylvanian Basin
Eurasia Alpine SystemCentral Balkan Ranges
Eurasia Alpine SystemCarpathians
Eurasia Alpine SystemCaucasus
Eurasia Alpine SystemCaucasusCaucasus
Eurasia Alpine SystemCaucasusCaucasus
Eurasia Alpine SystemCaucasusTranscaucasian Depressian
Eurasia Alpine SystemCaucasusKolkhida Lowland
Eurasia Great European Plain
Eurasia Great European PlainAquitanian Plain
Eurasia Great European PlainNetherlands
Eurasia Great European PlainNorth German Lowlands
Eurasia Great European PlainPolesian Swamps
Eurasia Great European PlainDnieper Lowlands
Eurasia Great European PlainVolyno-Podolian Dissected Lowlands
Eurasia Great European PlainWallachian Plain
Eurasia Great European PlainAzovian Plain
Eurasia Great European PlainDonetz-Azovian Plateau
Eurasia Great European PlainCentral Russian Rise
Eurasia Great European PlainOka-Don Lowlands
Eurasia Great European PlainRussian Plain
Eurasia Ural Mountains
Eurasia Ural MountainsNorthern Urals
Eurasia Ural MountainsCentral Urals
Eurasia Ural MountainsSouthern Urals
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsZagros Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsBitlis Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsKopet-Dag Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsElburz Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsElburz MountainsWestern Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsElburz MountainsCentral Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsElburz MountainsEastern Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsCentral Iranian Plateau
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsCentral Iranian PlateauDasht-e Kavir
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsCentral Iranian PlateauDasht-e Lut
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsPontus Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsTaurus Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern HighlandsAnatolian Plateau
Eurasia Fertile Crescent
Eurasia West Siberian Plain
Eurasia West Siberian PlainTaiga
Eurasia West Siberian PlainKazakh Steppe
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland
Eurasia Central Siberian UplandYenisei Horst
Eurasia Central Siberian UplandIrkutsk Basin
Eurasia Central Siberian UplandVilyuy Plain
Eurasia Central Siberian UplandAldan Basin
Eurasia Central Siberian UplandYakutsk Basin
Eurasia Eastern Highlands
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsAnadyr Range
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsKolyma Range
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsKamchatka Peninsula
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsVerhoyanski Range
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsStanovoy Range
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsSikhote Alyn Range
Eurasia Eastern HighlandsSakhalin Island
Eurasia Northern Asian Mountains
Eurasia Northern Asian MountainsKentei Hills
Eurasia Northern Asian MountainsAltai Mountains
Eurasia North Indian Plain
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemHindu Kush Mountains
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemLesser Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemGreat Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemTethys Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemPamirs
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain SystemTibetan Plateau
Eurasia Deccan Plateau
Eurasia Deccan PlateauWestern Ghats
Eurasia Deccan PlateauEastern Ghats
Eurasia Deccan PlateauNagpur Basin
Eurasia Deccan Plateauvindhya Range
Eurasia Deccan PlateauSatpura Range
Eurasia Deccan PlateauBihar Hills
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands
Eurasia Central Asian LowlandsTaklamakan Desert
Eurasia Central Asian LowlandsBaikal Basin
Eurasia Central Asian LowlandsDzungarain Basin
Eurasia Central Asian LowlandsGobi Desert
Eurasia Central Asian LowlandsZaidam Basin

[edit] References

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This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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