Z-transform
In mathematics and signal processing, the Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain representation.
It can be considered as a discrete equivalent of the Laplace transform. This similarity is explored in the theory of time scale calculus.
The Z-transform was introduced, under this name, by Ragazzini and Zadeh in 1952. The modified or advanced Z-transform was later developed by E. I. Jury, and presented in his book Sampled-Data Control Systems (John Wiley & Sons 1958). The idea contained within the Z-transform was previously known as the "generating function method".
Contents
Definition
The Z-transform, like many integral transforms, can be defined as either a one-sided or two-sided transform.
Bilateral Z-transform
The bilateral or two-sided Z-transform of a discrete-time signal x[n] is the function X(z) defined as
where n is an integer and z is, in general, a complex number:
- where A is the magnitude of z, and φ is the complex argument (also referred to as angle or phase) in radians.
Unilateral Z-transform
Alternatively, in cases where x[n] is defined only for n ≥ 0, the single-sided or unilateral Z-transform is defined as
In signal processing, this definition is used when the signal is causal.
An important example of the unilateral Z-transform is the probability-generating function, where the component is the probability that a discrete random variable takes the value , and the function is usually written as , in terms of . The properties of Z-transforms (below) have useful interpretations in the context of probability theory.
Geophysical Definition
In geophysics, the usual definition for the Z-transform is a polynomial in z as opposed to . This convention is used by Robinson and Treitel and by Kanasewich. The geophysical definition is
The two definitions are equivalent; however, the difference results in a number of changes. For example, the location of zeros and poles move from inside the unit circle, using one definition, to outside the unit circle, using the other definition (and vice versa). Thus, care is required to note which definition is being used by a particular author.
Inverse Z-transform
The inverse Z-transform is
where is a counterclockwise closed path encircling the origin and entirely in the region of convergence (ROC). The contour or path, , must encircle all of the poles of .
A special case of this contour integral occurs when is the unit circle (and can be used when the ROC includes the unit circle). The inverse Z-transform simplifies to the inverse discrete-time Fourier transform:
- .
The Z-transform with a finite range of n and a finite number of uniformly-spaced z values can be computed efficiently via Bluestein's FFT algorithm. The discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) (not to be confused with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)) is a special case of such a Z-transform obtained by restricting z to lie on the unit circle.
Region of convergence
The region of convergence (ROC) is the set of points in the complex plane for which the Z-transform summation converges.
Example 1 (No ROC)
Let . Expanding on the interval it becomes
Looking at the sum
Therefore, there are no such values of that satisfy this condition.
Example 2 (causal ROC)
Let (where is the Heaviside step function). Expanding on the interval it becomes
Looking at the sum
The last equality arises from the infinite geometric series and the equality only holds if which can be rewritten in terms of as . Thus, the ROC is . In this case the ROC is the complex plane with a disc of radius 0.5 at the origin "punched out".
Example 3 (causal ROC)
Let (where is the Heaviside step function). Expanding on the interval it becomes
Looking at the sum
Using the infinite geometric series, again, the equality only holds if which can be rewritten in terms of as . Thus, the ROC is . In this case the ROC is a disc centered at the origin and of radius 0.5.
What differentiates this example from the previous example is only the ROC. This is intentional to demonstrate that the transform result alone is insufficient.
Examples conclusion
Examples 2 & 3 clearly show that the Z-transform of is unique when and only when specifying the ROC. Creating the pole-zero plot for the causal and anticausal case show that the ROC for either case does not include the pole that is at 0.5. This extends to cases with multiple poles: the ROC will never contain poles.
In example 2, the causal system yields an ROC that includes while the anticausal system in example 3 yields an ROC that includes .
In systems with multiple poles it is possible to have an ROC that includes neither nor . The ROC creates a circular band. For example, has poles at 0.5 and 0.75. The ROC will be , which includes neither the origin nor infinity. Such a system is called a mixed-causality system as it contains a causal term and an anticausal term .
The stability of a system can also be determined by knowing the ROC alone. If the ROC contains the unit circle (i.e., ) then the system is stable. In the above systems the causal system (Example 2) is stable because contains the unit circle.
If you are provided a Z-transform of a system without an ROC (i.e., an ambiguous ) you can determine a unique provided you desire the following:
- Stability
- Causality
If you need stability then the ROC must contain the unit circle. If you need a causal system then the ROC must contain infinity and the system function will be a right-sided sequence. If you need an anticausal system then the ROC must contain the origin and the system function will be a left-sided sequence. If you need both, stability and causality, all the poles of the system function must be inside the unit circle.
The unique can then be found.
Properties
Time domain | Z-domain | Proof | ROC | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Notation | ROC: | |||
Linearity | At least the intersection of ROC_{1} and ROC_{2} | |||
Time shifting | ROC, except if and if | |||
Scaling in the z-domain | ||||
Time reversal | ||||
Complex conjugation | ROC | |||
Real part | ROC | |||
Imaginary part | ROC | |||
Differentiation | ROC | |||
Convolution | At least the intersection of ROC_{1} and ROC_{2} | |||
Correlation | At least the intersection of ROC of X_{1}(z) and X_{2}() | |||
First Difference | At least the intersection of ROC of X_{1}(z) and | |||
Accumulation | At least the intersection of ROC of X_{1}(z) and | |||
Multiplication | - | |||
Parseval's relation |
- Initial value theorem
- , If causal
- Final value theorem
- , Only if poles of are inside the unit circle
Table of common Z-transform pairs
Here:
- u[n]=1 for n>=0, u[n]=0 for n<0
- δ[n] = 1 for n=0, δ[n] = 0 otherwise
Signal, | Z-transform, | ROC | |
---|---|---|---|
1 | |||
2 | |||
3 | |||
4 | |||
5 | |||
6 | |||
7 | |||
8 | |||
9 | |||
10 | |||
11 | |||
12 | |||
13 | |||
14 | |||
15 | |||
16 | |||
17 | |||
18 | |||
19 | |||
20 |
Relationship to Laplace transform
The bilateral Z-transform is simply the two-sided Laplace transform of the ideally sampled time function
where is the continuous-time function being sampled, the n^{th} sample, is the sampling period, and with the substitution: .
Likewise the unilateral Z-transform is simply the one-sided Laplace transform of the ideal sampled function. Both assume that the sampled function is zero for all negative time indices.
The Bilinear transform is a useful approximation for converting continuous time filters (represented in Laplace space) into discrete time filters (represented in z space), and vice versa. To do this, you can use the following substitutions in or :
from Laplace to z (Tustin transformation);
from z to Laplace.
Relationship to Fourier transform
The Z-transform is a generalization of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT). The DTFT can be found by evaluating the Z-transform at or, in other words, evaluated on the unit circle. In order to determine the frequency response of the system the Z-transform must be evaluated on the unit circle, meaning that the system's region of convergence must contain the unit circle. Otherwise, the DTFT of the system does not exist.
Linear constant-coefficient difference equation
The linear constant-coefficient difference (LCCD) equation is a representation for a linear system based on the autoregressive moving-average equation.
Both sides of the above equation can be divided by , if it is not zero, normalizing and the LCCD equation can be written
This form of the LCCD equation is favorable to make it more explicit that the "current" output is a function of past outputs , current input , and previous inputs .
Transfer function
Taking the Z-transform of the above equation (using linearity and time-shifting laws) yields
and rearranging results in
Zeros and poles
From the fundamental theorem of algebra the numerator has M roots (corresponding to zeros of H) and the denominator has N roots (corresponding to poles). Rewriting the transfer function in terms of poles and zeros
Where is the zero and is the pole. The zeros and poles are commonly complex and when plotted on the complex plane (z-plane) it is called the pole-zero plot.
In addition, there may also exist zeros and poles at and . If we take these poles and zeros as well as multiple-order zeros and poles into consideration, the number of zeros and poles are always equal.
By factoring the denominator, partial fraction decomposition can be used, which can then be transformed back to the time domain. Doing so would result in the impulse response and the linear constant coefficient difference equation of the system.
Output response
If such a system is driven by a signal then the output is . By performing partial fraction decomposition on and then taking the inverse Z-transform the output can be found. In practice, it is often useful to fractionally decompose before multiplying that quantity by to generate a form of which has terms with easily computable inverse Z-transforms.
See also
- Advanced Z-transform
- Star transform
- Bilinear transform
- Finite impulse response
- Formal power series
- Laplace transform
- Laurent series
- Probability-generating function
- Zeta function regularization
- Discrete-time Fourier transform
Bibliography
- Eliahu Ibrahim Jury, Sampled-Data Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1958.
- Eliahu Ibrahim Jury, Theory and Application of the Z-Transform Method, Krieger Pub Co, 1973. ISBN 0-88275-122-0.
- Refaat El Attar, Lecture notes on Z-Transform, Lulu Press, Morrisville NC, 2005. ISBN 1-4116-1979-X.
- Ogata, Katsuhiko, Discrete Time Control Systems 2nd Ed, Prentice-Hall Inc, 1995, 1987. ISBN 0-13-034281-5.
- Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer (1999). Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Signal Processing Series. ISBN 0-13-754920-2.
- J. R. Ragazzini and L. A. Zadeh, "The analysis of sampled-data systems," Trans. Am. Inst. Elec. Eng. 71:225-234, 1952.